Эхлэл хуудас

  Shipment glossary

Оврын жингийн тооцоолол

Агаарын болон далайн тээврийн компаниуд, цуглуулбар ачааны тээврийн хөлсийг авахдаа, ачааны бохир жин ( gross weight), оврын жин(chargeable weight) хоёрын аль ихээр нь тооцож авдаг тул ачааны оврын жинг зөв тооцож тээврийн зардлаа төсөвлөх нь чухал.

For International Air Shipments
  • L x W x H (inches) / 166 = Dimensional Weight (lbs)
  • L x W x H (inches) / 366 = Dimensional Weight (kg)
  • L x W x H (cm) / 6000 = Dimensional Weight (kg)
  • Example: 30" x 24" x 22" = 15,840 / 166 = 96 lbs. (round up to the nearest pound)
For Ocean Shipments
  • L x W x H (in inches) / 1728 = Dimensional Weight (cubic feet)
  • L x W x H (in inches) / 1728 * .028317 = Dimensional Weight (cubic meters)
  • L x W x H (in cm) / 1,000,000 = Dimensional Weight (cubic meters)
  • Example: 30" x 24" x 22" = 15,840 / 166 = 96 lbs. (round up to the nearest pound)
For Domestic Shipments
  • L x W x H (inches) / 194 = Dimensional Weight (lbs)
  • L x W x H (cm) / 6993 = Dimensional Weight (kg)
  • Example: 30" x 24" x 22" = 15,840 / 194 = 82 lbs. (round up to the nearest pound)
Sea Freight Terms
B.A.F. Bunker adjustment factor (balance for changing fuel costs)
B/L Bill of Lading (transport document listing the sea transport from departure to destination)
C.A.F. Currency adjustment factor (balance for fluctuations in rate of the various currencies)
C.F.S. Container freight station (warehouse where the consolidation containers are loaded or unloaded)
Conference Line Conference Line Shippers which are members of a committee
C.Y. (Container Yard) Place where loaded containers are delivered to be shipped or forwarded
C/S Congestion surcharge (surcharge for waiting time in the ports)
C.S.C. Container service charge (transit costs for containers in Europe)
DEMURRAGE Rent of container, if the container is not picked up at the port within a set time
DETENTION Rent of container if the empty container is not returned on time
E.C.B. Express Cargo Bill of Lading (a freight document, not an ownership document)
E.T.A. Estimated time of arrival (planned arrival of ship)
E.T.D. Estimated time of departure (planned departure of ship)
F.C.L. Full container load (full container service)
FCL/FCL Full container service from door to door
FEU Fourty foot equivalent unit (40 foot container unit)
FCL/LCL Consignments in one container from a sender for several recipients
L.C.L. Less than container load (partial deliveries)
LCL/LCL Partial deliveries, which are put into one container in the container freight station and then separated at the destination
LCL/FCL Consignments in one container from several senders for one recipient
M.V. Motor Vessel (High-sea ship)
M.S. Motor Ship
Non Conference Line (Outside) Shippers which are not members of a committee
Non-Negot-Bill of Lading Unsigned B/L copies, which are not originals and therefore have no permit allowances
Notify Additional to notified address
P.O.L. Port of loading
P.O.D. Port of discharge
Stripping Unloading of container
Stuffing Loading of container
T.A.A. Trans Atlantic Agreement (Committee in the Trans Atlantic Service)
T-B/L Through Bill of Lading
TEU Twenty foot equivalent unit (20 foot container unit)
T.H.C. Terminal handling charge (Handling costs for container)
T/T Transit time
W/M Weight or Measurement (calculation of sea freight based on tonnes or cubic meters, depending which is higher)
Transportation Terminology Glossary of Terms
Accessorial Charge:   Amount billed for additional, supplemental or special services provided, usually a flat fee. Examples include: Tarps, dunnage, layovers, detention, etc
- Air Cargo:   Freight that is moved by air transportation.
- Air Cargo Agent:   An agent appointed by an airline to solicit and process international airfreight shipments.
- Air Cargo Containers:   Containers designed to conform to the inside of an aircraft. There are many shapes and sizes of containers. Air cargo containers fall into three categories: 1) air cargo pallets 2) lower deck containers 3) box type containers.
- Air Carrier:   An enterprise that offers transportation service via air.
- Airport and Airway Trust Fund:   A federal fund that collects passenger ticket taxes and disburses those funds for airport facilities.
- Air Waybill (AWB):   A bill of lading for air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicates that the carrier has accepted the goods listed, obligates the carrier to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions
All-in Line Haul:   FSC + Line Haul
- ATA:   Actual time of arrival, or also known as the American Trucking Associations
- ATD:   Actual time of departure
Backhaul (Head haul):   The return movement of a transportation vehicle from its delivery point back to its point of origin
Bill of Lading (BOL):   Paper document between a shipper and carrier acknowledging the receipt of goods for transport. Describes the nature of the cargo, amount of cargo by weight, size and/or number of pieces, and the origin and destination of cargo
- Bill of Lading, Through:   A bill of lading to cover goods from point of origin to final destination when interchange or transfer from one carrier to another is necessary to complete the journey
- Bonded Warehouse:   Warehouse approved by the related Government Authority and under bond/guarantee for observance of revenue laws. Used for storing goods until duty is paid or goods are released in some other appropriate manner
- Break Bulk Cargo:   Cargo that is shipped as a unit or package (for example: palletized cargo, boxed cargo, large machinery, trucks) but is not containerized
- Break Bulk Vessel:   A vessel designed to handle break bulk cargo
Broker (freight):   Individual or company that serves as a liaison between another individual/company that needs shipping services and an authorized motor carrier. Determines the needs of a shipper and connects that shipper with a carrier capable of transporting the items at an acceptable price
- Bulk Cargo:   Unpacked dry cargo such as grain, iron ore or coal. Any commodity shipped in this way is said to be in bulk
- Business Logistics:   The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements
Carrier:   Utilizes trucks and/or trailers to move goods from point A to point B
- Certificate of Insurance:   A negotiable document indicating that insurance has been secured under an open policy to cover loss or damage to a shipment while in transit
- Certificate of Origin:   A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. Used for customs and foreign exchange purposes
- Chargeable Weight:   The shipment weight used in determining freight charges. The chargeable weight may be the dimensional weight or, for container shipments, the gross weight of the shipment less the tare weight of the container
- Clearance:   A document stating that a shipment is free to be imported into the country after all legal requirements have been met
Coil Racks:   Prefabricated cradles made of wood or steel made to hold rolled coils to keep them from rolling on a trailer
- Collect Freight:   Freight payable to the carrier at the port of discharge or ultimate destination. The consignee does not pay the freight charge if the cargo does not arrive at the destination
- Commercial Invoice:   A document created by the seller. It is an official document, which is used to indicate, among other things, the name and address of the buyer and seller, the product(s) being shipped, and their value for customs, insurance, or other purposes
Commodity:   Any article of commerce, including raw material, manufactured or grown products
Consignee:   The person or location to whom the shipment is to be delivered whether by land, sea or air
- Consolidation:   Combining two or more shipments in order to realize lower transportation rates. Inbound consolidation from vendors is called make-bulk consolidation; outbound consolidation to customers is called break-bulk consolidation
Container (Shipping Container):   Standard-sized rectangular box used to transport freight by ship, rail or highway. International shipping containers are 20’ or 40’, conform to International Standards Organization (ISO) standards and are designed to fit in ships’ holds. Domestic containers are up to 53’ long, of lighter construction and are designed for rail and highway use only
- Container Depot:   The storage area for empty containers
- Container Freight Station (CFS):   The location designated by carriers for receipt of cargo to be packed into containers/equipment by the carrier. At destination, CFS is the location designated by the carrier for unpacking of cargo from equipment/containers
- Container Terminal:   An area designated for use for the stowage of cargo in containers that may be accessed by truck, rail, or ocean transportation
- Container Vessel:   A vessel specifically designed for the carriage of containers
- Container Yard:   The location designated by the carrier for receiving, assembling, holding, storing, and delivering containers, and where containers may be picked up by shippers or redelivered by consignees
- Cost and Freight (C +AND+ F):   The seller quotes a price that includes the cost of transportation to a specific point. The buyer assumes responsibility for loss and damage and pays for the insurance of the shipment
- Country of Destination:   The country that will be the ultimate or final destination for goods
- Country of Origin:   The country where the goods were manufactured
- Customs:   The authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports
- Customs Clearance:   The act of obtaining permission to import merchandise from another country into the importing nation
- Customs House Broker:   A business firm that oversees the movement of international shipments through Customs, and ensures that the documentation accompanying a shipment is complete and accurate
- Dangerous Goods:   Articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety, or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when transported. See also Hazardous Goods
- Delivery Appointment:   The time agreed upon between two enterprises for goods or transportation equipment to arrive at a selected location
- Delivery-Duty-Paid:   Supplier/manufacturer arrangement in which suppliers are responsible for the transport of the goods they`ve produced, which are being sent to a manufacturer. This responsibility includes tasks such as ensuring that products get through Customs
- Delivery Order:   A document issued by the customs broker to the ocean carrier as authority to release the cargo to the appropriate party
- Destination:   The location designated as a receiving point for goods/shipment
- Devanning:   The unloading of cargo from a container or other piece of equipment. See Stripping
Distribution Center (DC):   A location where goods and materials are stored until they are ready to be moved to their end destination
Dead-Heading:   Operating a truck without cargo
Declared Value:   The value of a shipment imported for resale, as declared by the shipper or owner
Dedicated Team:   A team of drivers who take turns driving a dedicated truck
Dedicated Truck:   Refers to a driver pulling freight for one specific customer only, where only that load is on the truck. No partial loads can be added
Detention/Demurrage:   Charge by the carrier for excess retention of their equipment. Typically caused by untimely loading or unloading
Door-to-Door:   Synonymous with Thru Trailer Service - TTS but can also mean simply handling the shipment from the shipper to the consignee
Double Drop:   A flatbed with the lowest deck. Normally used for oversized or over-height loads
Dunnage:   Filler material placed in empty spaces to keep cargo from moving or falling. Typically lumber, foam padding or inflatable bags
- En-route:   A term used for goods in transit or on the way to a destination
- Equipment:   The rolling stock carriers use to facilitate the transportation services that they provide, including containers, trucks, chassis, vessels, and airplanes, among others
- ETA:   The Estimated Time of Arrival
Escorts:   Vehicles assisting in the movement of large, over-dimensional shipments. Escorts make sure the truck has plenty of space to move and alerts drivers of a shipment coming towards them. Help stop traffic with beacon lights and/or flags
Excess Value:   Amount of declared value of a shipment that is above the carrier’s limit of liability
Expedited:   The process of shipping at a faster rate than normal. Usually includes team drivers, overnight and/or air services
- Export:   To send goods and services to another country
- Export License:   A document secured from a government authorizing an exporter to export a specific quantity of a controlled commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required if a government has placed embargoes or other restrictions upon exports
- Ex Works:   The price that the seller quotes applies only at the point of origin. The buyer takes possession of the shipment at the point of origin and bears all costs and risks associated with transporting the goods to the destination
- Free on Board - FOB:   Contractual terms between a buyer and a seller that define where title transfer takes place
- Fourth Party Logistics 4PL:   Differs from third party logistics in the following ways: 1. 4PL organization is often a separate entity established as a joint venture or long-term contract between a primary client and one or more partners 2. 4PL organization acts as a single interface between the client and multiple logistics service providers 3. All aspects ideally of the clients supply chain are managed by the 4PL organization 4. It is possible for a major third party logistics provider to form a 4PL organization within its existing structure Strategic Supply Chain Alignment John Gattorna
- Freight:   Goods being transported from one place to another
- Freight Bill:   The carrier`s invoice for payment of transport services rendered
- Freight Carriers:   Companies that haul freight, also called for-hire carriers. Methods of transportation include trucking, railroads, airlines, and sea borne shipping
- Freight Charge:   The rate established for transporting freight
- Freight Collect:   The freight and charges to be paid by the consignee
- Freight Consolidation:   The grouping of shipments to obtain reduced costs or improved utilization of the transportation function. Consolidation can occur by market area grouping, grouping according to scheduled deliveries, or using third party pooling services such as public warehouses and freight forwarders
Freight Forwarder:   Facilitates shipping of goods for a third party. Similar to a ‘Freight Broker’ but typically handles international goods, is defined as a carrier and can be held responsible for claims and loss of cargo
- Freight Prepaid:   The freight and charges to be paid by the consignor
- Freight Quotation:   A quotation from a carrier or forwarder covering the cost of transport between two specified locations
- Front haul:   The first leg of the truck trip that involves hauling a load or several loads to targeted destinations
Fuel Surcharge (FSC):   The price of fuel can substantially change the cost of moving freight. Therefore, the Energy Information Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy publishes a U.S. National Average Fuel Index every week. Transportation companies will often include an FSC to the cost of moving freight either based on cents per mile or percentage of the line haul amount
- Full Container Load - FCL:   A term used when goods occupy a whole container
- Full Truckload - FTL:   Same as Full Container Load, but in reference to motor carriage instead of containers
- Gross Weight:   The total weight of the vehicle and the payload of freight or passengers
- Handling Costs:   The cost involved in moving, transferring, preparing, and otherwise handling inventory
- Harmonized Commodity Description +AND+ Coding System - Harmonized Code or HS Code:   An international classification system that assigns identification numbers to specific products. The coding system ensures that all parties in international trade use a consistent classification for the purposes of documentation, statistical control, and duty assessment
- Haulage:   The inland transport service, which is offered by the carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relative transport document
Hazmat:   Hazardous materials as classified by the US Environmental Protection Agency - EPA. Transport of hazardous materials is strictly regulated by the US D.O.T
Hot Shot:   Smaller trailers that are pulled by larger pickup trucks. Typically 24-40’ in length and cannot handle as much weight as a regular tractor-trailer. Commonly used for moving smaller loads or LTL shipments
- House Air Waybill - HAWB:   A bill of lading issued by a forwarder to a shipper as a receipt for goods that the forwarder will consolidate with cargo from other shippers for transport
- Hub Airport:   An airport that serves as the focal point for the origin and termination of long-distance flights flights from outlying areas meet connecting flights at the hub airport
- Inland Bill of Lading:   The carriage contract used in transport from a shipping point overland to the exporter`s international carrier location
- Inland Carrier:   An enterprise that offers overland service to or from a point of export
- Insurance:   A system of protection against loss under, which a number of parties agree to pay certain sums premiums for a guarantee that they will be compensated under certain conditions for specified loss and damage
- Insurance Certificate:   A document issued to the consignee to certify that insurance is provided to cover loss of, or damage to, the cargo while in transit
- Integrated Logistics:   A comprehensive, system-wide view of the entire supply chain as a single process, from raw materials supply through finished goods distribution. All functions that make up the supply chain are managed as a single entity rather than managing individual functions separately
- Intermodal Transportation:   Transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes, such as by truck and rail or truck and oceangoing vessel
- International Air Transport Association - IATA:   An international air carrier rate bureau for passenger and freight movements
- International Maritime Organization - IMO:   A United Nations-affiliated organization representing all maritime countries in matters affecting maritime transportation, including the movement of dangerous goods. The organization also is involved in deliberations on marine environmental pollution
- International Standards Organization ISO:   An organization within the United Nations to which all national and other standard-setting bodies (should) defer. Develops and monitors international standards, including OSI, EDIFACT, and X.400
Just in Time - JIT:   Manufacturing system, which depends on frequent, small deliveries of parts and supplies to keep on-site inventory to a minimum
Lane:   A move from point A to point B. Many companies will have a lane that they run on a regular basis called a “dedicated lane”
Line Haul:   The rate per mile in dollars and cents for transporting items
- Less-Than-Container load (LCL):   A term used when goods do not completely occupy an entire container. When many shippers goods occupy a single container, each shippers shipment is considered to be LCL
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL):   Quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a full truckload - FTL rate. Often a carrier will place several LTL shipments on the same truck to reduce the cost to the shipper
- Lift on, Lift off - LO/LO:   A method by, which cargo is loaded onto and unloaded from an ocean vessel, which in this case is with a crane
- Liner Service:   International water carriers that ply fixed routes on published schedules
- Logistics:   The process of planning, implementing, and controlling procedures for the efficient and effective storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements. This definition includes inbound, outbound, internal, and external movements
- Logistics Channel:   The network of supply chain participants engaged in storage, handling, transfer, transportation, and communications functions that contribute to the efficient flow of goods
- Logistics Costs:   The factors associated with the acquisition, storage, movement, and disposition of goods
- Manifest:   A document, which describes individual orders contained within a shipment
- Marine Cargo Insurance - Average:   A term in marine cargo insurance signifying loss or damage to merchandise
- Marine Cargo Insurance - General Average:   A loss arising out of a voluntary sacrifice made of any part of a shipment or cargo to prevent loss of the whole and for the benefit of all persons concerned
- Marine Cargo Insurance - Open Policy:   A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract i.e. it provides protection for all of an exporter`s shipments afloat, or in transit, within a specified geographical trade area for an unlimited period of time, until the policy is cancelled by the insured or by the insurance company. It is OPEN because the goods that are shipped are also detailed at that time. This is usually shown in a document called a marine insurance certificate
- Marks and Numbers:   Marks and numbers placed on goods used to identify a shipment or parts of a shipment
- Master Air Waybill - MAWB:   The bill of lading issued by air carriers to their customers
- Minimum Weight:   The shipment weight the carrier`s tariff specifies as the minimum weight required to use the TL or CL rate the rate discount volume
- MSDS:   See Material Safety Data Sheet
- Negotiable BOL:   Provides for the delivery of goods to a named enterprise or to their order /anyone they may designate/, but only upon surrender of proper endorsement and the bill of lading to the carrier or the carrier`s agents. Also known as an order bill of lading
- Net Weight:   The weight of the merchandise, unpacked, exclusive of any containers
- Non-Negotiable BOL:   Provides for the delivery of goods to a named enterprise and to no one else. Also known as a straight bill of lading
- Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC):   A firm that offers the same services as an ocean carrier, but which does not own or operate a vessel. NVOCCs usually act as consolidators, accepting small shipments (LCL) and consolidating them into full container loads. They also consolidate and disperse international containers that originate at or are bound for inland ports. They then act as a shipper, tendering the containers to ocean common carriers. They are required to file tariffs with the Federal Maritime Commission and are subject to the same laws and statutes that apply to primary common carriers
- Ocean Bill of Lading:   The bill of lading issued by the ocean carrier to its customer
- Ocean Carrier:   An enterprise that offers service via ocean (water) transport
- Origin:   The place where a shipment begins its movement
Owner-Operator:   Truck driver who owns and operates their truck(s)
Over-Dimensional (Wide Load):   Cargo that is larger than the legally defined limits for width, length, height, and/or weight and cannot be broken down into smaller units
- Packing List:   A document containing information about the location of each Product ID in each package. It allows the recipient to quickly find the item he or she is looking for without a broad search of all packages. It also confirms the actual shipment of goods on a line item basis
- Pallet:   The platform, which cartons are stacked on and then used for shipment or movement as a group. Pallets may be made of wood or composite materials
- Parcel Shipment:   Parcels include small packages like those typically handled by providers such as UPS and FedEx
Partial:   Truck used to compile multiple shipments from several customers in order to utilize the entire truck. Due to this, transit times can be longer than dedicated truckloads due to multiple stops
- Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA):   In quality management, a four-step process for quality improvement. In the first step (plan), a plan to affect improvement is developed. In the second step (do), the plan is carried out, preferably on a small scale. In the third step (check), the effects of the plan are observed. In the last step (action), the results are studied to determine what was learned and what can be predicted
- Port:   A harbor where ships will anchor
- Port Authority:   A state or local government that owns, operates, or otherwise provides wharf, dock, and other terminal investments at ports
- Port of Discharge:   Port where vessel is off loaded
- Port of Entry:   A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country
- Port of Loading:   Port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel
- Prepaid Freight:   Freight paid by the shipper to the carrier when merchandise is tendered for shipment that is not refundable if the merchandise does not arrive at the intended destination
Proof of Delivery (POD):   Signed documents (usually a Bill of Lading) that show a shipment was received at the delivery location
PRO number:   A number assigned by the carrier to reference the shipment. This is also used for tracking
- Pro Forma Invoice:   An invoice, forwarded by the seller of goods prior to shipment, that advises the buyer of the particulars and value of the goods. Usually required by the buyer in order to obtain an import permit or letter of credit
Ramps:   Carried by some open deck truckers to help facilitate the loading and offloading of shipments. Mostly found on step decks that are trying to haul cars and other drivable equipment
Rate Confirmation:   A document that confirms the agreed upon amount for the cost of service between the shipper and carrier
Reefer:   A trailer with insulated walls and a self-powered refrigeration unit. Most commonly used for transporting food
Removable Goose Neck (RGN):   A specialized type of heavy-haul flatbed trailer that can provide drive-on drive-off accessibility. The trailer deck is attached to a gooseneck which can be raised and lowered then removed from the trailer for transportation
- Routing or Routing Guide:   1. Process of determining how shipment will move between origin and destination. Routing information includes designation of carriers involved, actual route of carrier, and estimate time en route. 2. Right of shipper to determine carriers, routes, and points for transfer shipments
Shipper:   Consignor, exporter or seller named in the bill of lading, who may or may not be the same as the party responsible for initiating a shipment
- Shipping:   The function that performs the tasks for the outgoing shipment of parts, components, and products. It includes packaging, marking, weighing, and loading for shipment
- Shipping Lane:   A predetermined, mapped route on the ocean that commercial vessels tend to follow between ports. This helps ships avoid hazardous areas. In general transportation, the logical route between the point of shipment and the point of delivery used to analyze the volume of shipment between two points
- Shipping Manifest:   A document that lists the pieces in a shipment. A manifest usually covers an entire load regardless of whether the load is to be delivered to a single destination or many destinations. Manifests usually list the items, piece count, total weight, and the destination name and address for each destination in the load
- SOP:   Standard Operating Procedure
- Supply Chain:   1. Starting with unprocessed raw materials and ending with the final customer using the finished goods, the supply chain links many companies together. 2. The material and informational interchanges in the logistical process, stretching from acquisition of raw materials to delivery of finished products to the end user. All vendors, service providers, and customers are links in the supply chain
- 3D Loading:   3D loading is a method of space optimizing designed to help quickly and easily plan the best compact arrangement of any 3D rectangular object set (boxes) within one or more larger rectangular enclosures containers. Its based on three-dimensional, most-dense packing algorithms
Tanker:   Cylinder designed to haul liquids like fuel or oil
Tandem Axle:   Pair of axles and associated suspension usually located close together
- Tare Weight:   The weight of a substance obtained by deducting the weight of the empty container from the gross weight of the full container
- Terms and Conditions Ts +AND+ Cs:   All the provisions and agreements of a contract
Third Party Logistics:   Outsourcing all or much of a companys logistics operations to a specialized company
- Third Party Logistics Provider (3PL):   A firm, which provides multiple logistics services for use by customers. Preferably, these services are integrated or bundled together, by the provider. These firms facilitate the movement of parts and materials from suppliers to manufacturers, and finished products from manufacturers, and finished products from manufacturers to distributors and retailers. Among the services they provide are transportation, warehousing, cross docking, inventory management, packaging, and freight forwarding
- Transit Time:   The total time that elapses between a shipments pickup and delivery
Trans-Load:   The movement of a product from one trailer to another trailer in order to keep a shipment going. This is standard practice at international U.S. borders where carriers can only operate in one country and must pass off the load to a carrier authorized to transport loads in the country of the load’s destination
- Transportation Mode:   The method of transportation: land, sea, or air shipment
- Transportation Planning:   The process of defining an integrated supply chain transportation plan and maintaining the information, which characterizes total supply chain transportation requirements, and the management of transporters, both inter- and intra- company
- Unitize:   To consolidate several packages into one unit carriers strap, band, or otherwise attach the several packages together
Van:   An enclosed boxlike motor vehicle having rear or side doors and side panels used for transporting goods
- Vessel:   A floating structure designed for transport
- Vessel Manifest:   A list of all cargoes on a vessel
- Voyage:   The trip designation (trade route and origin/destination) identifier, usually numerically sequential
- VSA:   Vessel Sharing Agreement
- Warehouse:   Storage place for products. Principal warehouse activities include receipt of product, storage, shipment, and order picking
- Warehousing:   The storage (holding) of goods
- Waybill:   Document containing description of goods that are part of common carrier freight shipment. Shows origin, destination, consignee/consignor, and amount charged. Copies travel with goods and are retained by originating/delivering agents. Used by carrier for internal record and control, especially during transit. Not a transportation contract